After bidding goodbye to the cosy winters, the onset of spring welcomes us with the daylight, leaves on the trees, long evenings and the inevitably exciting. As India celebrates Holi- the festival of colours. ‘Holi festival India’- the other name for love, abundant colours, delicacies and joy.
The celebrations of Holi occurs on the full moon day (Purnima) in the month of Phalgun (February-March) and is a national holiday in India and Nepal. A regional holiday in other countries.
When there are celebrations of Holi, people transcending their differences paint each other with colour in mixture with water . It is also the time to unite, forgetting all resentments and all types of bad feelings towards each other. On this one day only, there are a reverasal in the usual rankings of caste, gender, status, and age. However, at its conclusion, there is a reversal and renewation in the usual patterns of societial strucutre.
‘Holi festival India’ celebrates the agriculture, commemorates good spring harvests and the fertile lands. For countless Hindus, Holi- the festival of colours marks the beginning of the New Year as well as an occasion to reset and renew ruptured relationships. A time to end conflicts and rid themselves of accumulated emotional impurities from the past.
Holi festival history– Legends and Anecdotes
When is Holi celebrated?
Amanta and Purnimanta are two ways of reckoning the lunar month. According to the purnimanta reckoning, Phalguna Purnima was the last day of the year and the New Year heralds the spring season. It was much in vogue in earlier days and this perhaps explains the other names of this festival like Vasanta-Mahotsava.
The ancient religious books like aimini’s Purvamimamsa Sutras and Kathaka-Grhya Sutra also mentions about Holi. The Holi festival has a detailed description in the Vedas and Puranas such as NaradPuran and Bhavishyapuran.
A stone inscription belonging to 300 BC found at Ramgarh in the province of Vindhya has the mention of a ‘Holi story’. King Harsha has mentioned about ‘Holi festival India’ in his work Ratnavali. The famous Muslim tourist – Al Biruni also gave a narration about it in his memoirs.
References are also there in the sculptures on walls of old temples. In a temple at Hampi, capital of Vijayanagar, a painting depicts a Prince and his Princess standing amidst the house cleaners waiting with pichkaris to drench the Royal couple with coloured water. The similar theme of vasantaragini – spring song or music is found in a 16th century Ahmednagar painting.
A Mewar painting shows the Maharana bestowing gifts on some people, a merry dance is on and at the centre, there is a tank is of water in mixture with colour. A Bundi miniature shows a king sitting on a tusker and from a balcony above, Gulal is being showered on him. It is said to believe that the great Sanskrit poet Kalidas was the first to write about ‘Holi festival India’.
Renowned poets like Surdas, Nand-das, Kumbhan-das and others have picturesquely described how Lord Krishna played Holi with the gopies.
Holi Festival India- The legend of Vishnu
A symbolic legend explains why is Holi celebrated as a festival of triumph of good over evil. King Hiranyakashipu, according to a legend found in chapter 7 of Bhagavata Purana was the king of demons. He had earned a boon that gave him five special powers: he couldn’t be killed by a human being or an animal, not indoors neither outdoors; doesn’t matter whether day or night.
Do you know what made Hiranyakashiyap go mad?
Thinking himself to be the God, Hiranyakashipu grew arrogant and demanded that everyone must worship only him.
However his own son, Prahlada disagreed. He remained undeterred and devoted to Vishnu in spite of being subjected to excruciating punishments unimaginable.
This infuriated Hiranyakashipu. Arrogance had turned the King’s heart into stone. Thus, driven mad by his unflagging supercilious nature, he decided to kill his own son.
Finally, Holika, Prahlada’s evil aunt, tricked him into sitting on a pyre with her. Holika was wearing a cloak that made her immune to injury from fire, while Prahlada was not. As the fire soared, the cloak flew from Holika and encased Prahlada, who survived unlike Holika.
Vishnu, the god who appears as an incarnation to restore Dharma in Hindu beliefs, took the form of Narasimha and killed the king by surpassing the boons acquired by him. The Holika bonfire and Holi signifies the celebration of the symbolic victory of Prahlada over Hiranyakashipu, and of the fire that burned Holika. This is the story of Holika that has continued to inspire through the ages in Indian society.
Krishna legend- The innocent and playful Krishna
In the Braj region of India, where Lord Krishna grew up, Holi was celebrated until Rang Panchmi in commemoration of the divine love of Radha for Krishna. As per a local legend, when Krishna was a baby, he developed the dark colour tinge on his skin because the she-demon Putana poisoned him with her breast milk.
As he grew young, Krishna despaired whether the fair-skinned Radha or other girls of the village would like him because of his dark skin colour. His mother, tired of his desperation, asks him to approach Radha and tell her to colour his face in any colour she wanted. This she did, and Radha and Krishna became a couple.
Ever since the playful colouring by Radha on Krishna’s face, it has become a part of the culture that embodies ‘Holi festival India’.
The Bengali “Dolyatra” marking the final celebration of a Bengali year; popularizes the tale of Krishna, as a boy, drenching girls with water and colours as a sport. Soon, the other boys in his village started participating and somehow, it became a tradition to throw colours and water on each other on this special day.
As Krishna grew, the game came to signify the colourful and eventful love story of Radha and Krishna. This tradition has transpired through ages to signify the festival of colours across the globe, with its origin solely in the Hindu mythology.
Kama and Rati
The legendary significance of Holi festival India, particularly in South India, is also linked to a story when Lord Shiva performs yoga and goes into deep meditation. Goddess Parvati seeks help from the Hindu God of love – Kamadeva, on Vasant Panchami in order to bring back Shiva into the world.
Then the love god shoots arrows at Shiva, he opens his third eye and burns the Kama to ashes. This upsets both Kama’s wife Rati and Goddess Parvati. Rati performs her own meditative asceticism for forty days, upon which Shiva understands, forgives out of compassion and resurrects the god of love.
However, Kamadeva was been brought to life only as a mental image. This return of the god of love is celebrated on the 40th day after Vasant Panchami festival like Holi.
Holi Festival India- Other Indian religions
This festival has been traditionally observed by several non-Hindus. In Mughal India, Holi has celebrated with such exuberance that people of all castes threw colours on the Emperor. Grand celebrations of Holi was been held at the Red Fort, where the festival was also known as Eid-e-gulaabi or Aab-e-Pashi.
One of the well-known Holi facts is that Emperor Aurangzeb banned this celebration. Bahadur Shah Zafar himself wrote a song for this festival, while few other poets cherished it in their writings.
Sikhs have traditionally celebrated the festival, at least through the 19th century, with its historic texts referring to it as Hola. Guru Gobind Singh – the last guru of the Sikhs – modified Holi with a three-day holamohalla extension of the festival.
Holi Festival India– A culture
Holi Puja, Holikadahan or Holika Story
Rituals of the ancient festival of Holi are followed every year with care and enthusiasm. Days before the festival people start gathering wood and other inflammable things for the lighting of the bonfire called Holika at the major crossroads throughout cities across India.
On this day, known as “Choti Holi”, an effigy of Holika and Prahlad is placed on a huge heap of woods. The heap is set alight and the people chant certain Mantras to cast away the evil spirits. Leftover ashes are collected by people the next morning and are smeared on the limbs of the body as Holi Prasad. The puja is performed in a different manner in different communities. This ritual is also referred to as the Holika story.
Why is Holi called the Festival of colours?
The next day is called Dhuleti or Charandi, which is the main day of celebration, meant for pure enjoyment. Entire streets and towns turn red, green and yellow as people throw coloured powder into the air and splash them on others. Each colour carries meaning.
Water guns are used to squirt water, while balloons filled with coloured water are also flung from rooftops. If anybody stares, there’s a ready answer, ‘Buranamano Holi hai..’ evoking a smile on the irritated face. There is total wildness as people dance to the rhythm of dholak, sing traditional folk songs and Bollywood Holi numbers in loudest possible pitch.
The special feast
Mouth-watering food items like gujiya, malpuas, mathri, puranpoli are savoured and gulped down the with glasses full of thandai or the traditional bhang.
After playing with colours during the day, people clean themselves up, bathe, sober up and get dressed. They then visit their relatives and friends and greet them as a conclusion to Holi.
Holi Festival India- A mosaic of traditions
Holi celebration in Uttar Pradesh – home of Holi paradises
The special grandeur of Holi in Braj is no less worthy than the seven wonders. Braj is a historical region that includes Mathura, Vrindavan and other nearby areas closely connected with Lord Krishna. The Holi festival of colours continues here with fervour for around a week. One might have to visit at least twice in order to witness and experience the events in all the villages.
The formal beginning of the festival begins with people of Nandgaon inviting the people of Barsana for celebrations. It is called Phag Amantran Utsav. Laddoos are thrown at each other in place of colours at the Shriji temple, dedicated to Radharani. Devotees cavort with a sense of joy and devotion at the same time on this occasion. The place is full of yellow colour – the favourite colour of Krishna.
It is said that Lord Krishna, along with his troop, used to come to Barsana to play Holi with Radhaji and then Radha Ji and her friends would chase them away using bamboo sticks. This has become a ritual now. The women of Barsana try to shove off the men of the region. The men try to immerse the women in colours as well while keeping in mind to save themselves from the sticks. The atmosphere is filled with fun, frolic and love- all in the name of Holi.
Being the mild version of Lathmaar Holi, it is celebrated in Gokul on the day after Ekadashi. It might be so as Gokul is the village where Vasudeva brought Lord Krishna at night after his birth and so, here, he continues to be treated like an infant.
A few days before Holi, there is around a 20-25 minutes ceremony at Banke-Bihari temple wherein, flowers are showered on the devotees by the Goswamis. Everyone individually drenches their soul in the fragrance of love, devotion, gratitude through those petals. It appears like a movie scene.
A noble initiative started by Sulabh International in 2013 has broken the stereotypes with respect to widows. Now, the widows at Pagal Baba Ashram and widows all over the region gather at the Gopinath Temple in Vrindavan to play with colours and flowers. In Mathura also, a special event is organized solely for them.
Holika or Samvatsardahan
It occurs everywhere in Brijmandal and people put a lot of cow dung cakes in the fire. There is also a belief that Falen (in Kosi, Mathura) is the village of Prahalad and the panda (priest) actually chants his name before crossing through the giant fire. Hundreds of people surround the fire while the priest comes out of the fire without any harm.
This surpasses all the chills and thrills. Apart from that, people also burn a huge effigy in the Holi Ghat. One should give up all the bad in the fire and start anew.
This big day represents Color play! The whole Braj area gets into a union to celebrate Holi. The people throw rich colours ‘Abir’ or ‘ Gulal’ at each other and immerse them in a splash of colours with water missiles! The chants of Happy Holi and traditional folk songs can be heard in the streets and Holi Tolis (group) is seen in a mischievous mood. No differences, no distance just fun and good cheer everywhere. Really, the Braj Holi is just the best.
Huranga literally means riot and Daujika Huranga is a total riot in all sense. If by any chance a man gets in front of the women, it is rare to hear that one escapes getting stripped. They organise this celebration in the Baldeo region of Mathura at the temple of Dauji (elder brother of Krishna). This old tradition was started by the women of the family who built the temple.
To mark the festivities, plays and skits are organized on the streets by the locals of Braj, who enact stories from the Hindu mythology
In Mukhrai, the village of Radha’s maternal grandmother, Charkula dance is performed on Chaitra Krishna Dwitiya. When Radha was born, her Nani (Mukhrai) lit up the lamps on the chariot wheel and danced with it on her head.
Processions at Mathura
A colourful and melodious Holi procession starts at vishram ghat and ends at Holi Gate. In this procession, around ten vehicles, decor of beautiful flowers and other stuff gets a display on the road. In these vehicles, some kids are present, who wear dresses as Radha and Krishna while some are dancing on the open decks of the backside of the trucks, and they parade across the city.
People sprinkle colours on each other, sing songs and relish bhang- laced thandai. It’s a delightful scene to witness. Around 3pm this procession is at its peak. One can also witness the process of Bhang-making at the vishram ghat early in the morning.
Dwarkadeesh temple at Mathura
Before the temple gates open for the festivities, the crowd outside well in advance colour each other. After the performance of special prayers, priests often play Dhols, and one can join the dancing crowd inside the temple complex.
The atmosphere is much friendlier and the devotees dance in large numbers and play Holi with the Lord in a grand way, full of zeal and enthusiasm.
Phaguwa is a tradition, followed by several communities, where women celebrate the first Holi after marriage at their parent’s place and the brothers-in-law or husbands go to them with gifts for playing Holi. People generally celebrate it on Chaitra Krishna Pratham.
Not only the people there but also a lot of foreigners and members of ISKON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) with great alacrity participate in the vibrant celebrations at Mathura- Vrindavan. This joyous festival celebrates the eternal love of Radha and Krishna.
The celebration of Holi in the state of West Bengal has a particular élan. The high point is the celebration of “BasantUtsav” in which boys and girls joyfully welcome spring with colours as well as songs, dance, chanting of hymns in the serene ambience of Shantiniketan.
Here, the festival of colours has other name, “dolyatra or Dol Purnima” that people celebrate with immense pomp and dignity. People decorates palanquins and place the idols of Radha and Krishna which then they take out for a procession. Generally, the Grihapati or gamily head observes fast and prays to Lord Krishna and Agnidev.
Holi celebration in Maharashtra and Gujarat
Here, they tie a pot of buttermilk, up high on the streets, which people celebrate with a huge fan base. Trained groups – Tolis, form huge pyramids to break the pot of buttermilk hung high on the streets. The winners becomes the Holi Kings. Adding to the enthusiasm is the steady flow of color water on the aspiring kanhayias by the other people.
The mischievous Lord Krishna used to steal his favourite buttermilk from every house in the village. To hide the butter from young Krishna, womenfolk started hanging the pots high, but all went in vain!
People of Maharashtra also recognize Holi by the name of “Rang-Panchami” or “Shigma”. In Dwarka, a coastal city of Gujarat, the Dwarkadeesh temple that depicts Krishna as the King of Dwarka celebrates the festival of colours. Comedy and music take place citywide. Holi also marks the agricultural season of Rabi crop.
Holi celebration in Jaipur
The capital of “Rangeelo Rajasthan”, the pink city- Jaipur is no way behind when it comes to Holi celebrations. The oldest temple in the city – Govind dev Ji temple, has the celebrations for more than a week. In the magnificently decorated temple, devotees play Holi with colours, flowers and sandalwood powder.
Also, hosting of few events like Raasleela is also there in the temple premises. Thousands of people gather to see the “Elephant festival” held during Holi. Wherein there is a musical procession of groomed and beautifully ornamented elephants.
Holi celebration in Punjab
Sikhs, known for their love for life, celebrate Holi in their own style. At Punjab, they call it “Holla-Mohalla”. They shout their hearts out following a peculiar tradition. Besides, they also exhibit their physical strength especially ‘wrestling’ and enjoy themselves with the colours in the evening.
Mouthwatering halwas, puris, gujias, preparation of raw jack fruit and malpuas are an essential part of the festivities. The community feast (langar) is open throughout the day. The only difference is that they do not light a bonfire. People also host Holi fairs which continue for days.
Holi celebration in other parts of India
In the Barpeta region of Assam, the devotees of Lord Krishna celebrate Holi festival for 3-5 days as the “Doul festival.” There are many rituals including the burning of the clay huts, playing with colours and music and so on.
In Manipur, there is an amalgamation of old Yaosang festival with Holi. People play gulal with each other in front of the Krishna temples during this 6 days festival ending with a procession towards the main Krishna temple at Imphal.
Varanasi and the city of Uttarakhand celebrates Holi as Kumaoni Holi with classical ragas, whereas, in Bihar, people traditionally clean their houses and then celebrate the festival. In South India, people worship the God of love- Kamadeva.
The Banjara tribes of Andhra Pradesh perform graceful dances. The women of Haryana practise a sort of lathmar holi to take sweet revenge from their brothers-in-law for all their mischiefs.
The Bhils of North-West India have their own special ways to mark the festival. When the Holika fire is lit, loud cries of Holimata rent the sky to a boisterous shake. The exhilarating Holi celebrations in Delhi often begin with a Tilakand, moreover the capital experiences a musical Holi.
There are extravagant and booming Holi parties with sumptuous delicacies. The heavenly Jammu and Kashmir has the same spirit of craziness for Holi, which brings back the joy in the lives of the people. In some parts of India like Orissa, people also celebrate Holi Purnima as the birthday of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Holi celebration outside India
Holi has become increasingly popular outside of India as well because of the millions of Indians and other South Asians living all over the world. People host events in the U.S, London, Europe and New York. The country of Nepal also celebrates the festival of Holi with ethusiasm. The Hindus in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Canada, Australia, and Mauritius also observe the festival of Holi.
Significance of Holi festival
Holi festival India- Beauty and Tradition
The festival has cultural significance among various Hindu traditions. The various legends associated with Holi reassure the people of the power of the truth and pious conduct in their lives, wherein God always takes his true devotee to his abode.
Udaat gulal laal bhaya,
Ambar barsaat rang apaar re,
Ghat ke sab pat khol diye hain,
Lok-laaj sab dar re,
Mira ke prabhu Girdhar Nagar,
Charan kanwal balihaar re..
Here, the devotional Meera says that Holi means to forget all the customs, hypocrisies and pseudo modesty, self-analyze ourselves and affectionately surrender to the Lord.
Holi helps to bring the society together and strengthen the secular fabric of our country. Since Non-Hindus of the country also celebreate holi with utmost fun and belief. Everybody celebrates together with the feeling of bonhomie and brotherhood.
It is natural for the body to experience some tardiness due to the change from the cold to the heat in the atmosphere. To counteract this, people sing loudly and their movements are brisk. All of this helps to rejuvenate the system of the human body. Biologists believe the liquid dye penetrates the body and enters into the pores that strengthen the ions in the body and add health and beauty to it.
Are you aware of the scientific reason behind celebrating Holi?
The mutation period of winter and spring induces the growth of bacteria in the atmosphere as well as in the body. During the burning of Holika, the heat from the fire kills the bacterias.
Time to go eco-friendly
There are more natural ways of celebrating Holi as well, in order to de-pollute Holi and make it sync with nature. We must try using Natural or home-made colours instead of toxic colours with chemicals. As they only harm the environment and also are dangerous for skin and eyes.
There must be a control over the wastage of the staggering amount of wood that takes place during Holi Dahan. Instead one should lit small bonfires or use waste materials. Water does provide relief in the warm season but one should be aware about the scarcity of water in the urban areas.
It is true that colouring something gives life to it and so is this glorious festival that compels one to plug into the dreamy world of colourful rainbows. Holi festival of colours lets you lose your hair and enjoy your hidden crazy self. Also, known as the ‘Festival of Love’, this joyous festival celebrates the eternal love of Radha and Krishna.
However, several crimes in recent times committed by some sick-minded people. Tarnish this otherwise glorious festival, especially when it comes to young girls and children. This should be a change to the once safe and happy Holi. The saint Kabir also mentions in his verses that Holi is a time to paint one’s soul in the hues of the Lord.
Nonetheless, Holi has always been about breaking boundaries, increasing the sense of brotherhood among people and reviving estranged ties. And thus, bringing back colours, excitement, zest, vigour and buoyancy to our monotonous lives.